The National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP) which aims to eliminate Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Brucellosis among cattle in the country was launched recently by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
- FMD and Brucellosis are the most common diseases affecting livestock in the country.
- India, with over 125 crore livestock population cannot afford to persist with these diseases.
- Many rural families are dependent on livestock for additional income. The diseases render the livestock unproductive and create loss to the people.
- Also, many countries have banned dairy and meat exports from the country citing the prevalence of these two diseases in the county.
- NADCP is thus aimed at eliminating FMD and Brucellosis amongst livestock in the country.
- The programme aims to vaccinate 500 million cattle heads against FMD. This includes goats, sheep, buffaloes, cattle and pigs.
- 36 million female bovine calves will be vaccinated for Brucellosis.
- NADCP is 100% centrally funded scheme.
- The total cost of the programme is Rs. 12,500 crores for five years till 2024.
- The programme is looking to control the two diseases by 2025 and eliminate them by 2030.
Foot and Mouth Disease
- FMD is a viral disease that occurs commonly in cloven-hooved ruminants like cattle, goats, sheep and pigs.
- It is generally not fatal in adult animals but will make them weakened and reduces the production of milk thus financially affecting the farmers.
- Fevers, sores in the mouth, on the teats and between the hooves appear in infected animals.
- The FMD virus is spread through the secretions of the animals and also the animals exhale the virus.
- World Organisation for Animal Health, an intergovernmental organisation that looks after prevention of animal diseases and improving their health, states that FMD is endemic to limited areas of the world – some parts of Asia, most of Africa and the middle east.
- Regions like Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, central and Northern America, Western Europe and the whole of Latin America are free of the disease.
- Controlling the outbreaks of the disease includes controlled introduction of new animals into the existing herds, regular cleaning and disinfection of livestock areas, reporting the illness, and implementing effective vaccination strategies.
- This is a zoonotic disease and is endemic to most parts of the country.
- It causes early abortions and prevents the introduction of new calves into the animal population.
- WHO recommends vaccination of the cattle to control the disease.
- As part of the NADCP, every female cattle and calves in the age group of 4-8 months will be vaccinated once in their lifetime.
Cattle play a crucial role in the rural economy. The framing community gets additional income by selling dairy products. The NADCP programme will thus help farmers secure their incomes and help animals from distress. It will help India regain its market share in global meat exports.