The Union Cabinet approved the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) 2018,which was last reviewed and issued in 2011, with periodic amendments to some clauses. It streamline coastal regulation zone clearances, enhancing activities in coastal regions and promoting economic growth while keeping in mind conservation of coastal area.
Key points of Notification,2018
Permission: The project which are located in CRZ-1and CRZ-4 will required clearance from Union Ministry. State govt has more say which permit CRZ-2 and CRZ-3.
Terminology:-CRZ-1:Ecologically Sensitive Area, CRZ-2:The area that have been developed up to or close to the shoreline, CRZ-3:Areas that relatively undisturbed, CRZ-4:Area b\w Low Tide Line and 12 nautical miles seaward
Relaxing norms: The construction norms relax for Floor Space Index (FSI)or Floor Area Ratio(FAR) and CRZ-2(Urban). They were frozen at 1991 Development Control Regulation. The construction projects will meets emerging needs.
Floor Spacing Index: FSI is also known Floor Area Ratio.It is the ratio between area of a build up area to area of a plot(plot) on which building stands.
No Development Zone(NDZ): A no development zone of 20 metre is fixed for all Islands close the mainland. The CRZ-3(Rural) divided in two category A and B.
CRZ-3A(Rural)- There is NDZ of 50 meters from the HTL as against 200 meters from the High Tide Line (given in the CRZ Notification, 2011).Wherethe population density is 2161\sq km.
CRZ-3B(Rural)-There is NDZ of 200 metre from the High Tide Line.Where the population density is below 2161\ sq km.
High Tide Line:HTL is generally the line of intersection of the land with the water’s surface at the maximum height reached by a rising tide.
Promoting Tourism: Temporary facility like shacks, toilet, changing room, and drinking water permitted on beaches. Theses facilities are permitted in No Development Zone of CRZ3.However a minimum distance of 10 m maintained from HTL for setting up such facilities. This will create short employment.
Exception: The defence and other strategic project exempted from in new notification with respect to they must not create environment damage.
Challenges in Coastal Area
Land degradation: TheIndian coastal line has been degraded in recent time. The activities which are responsible for it are rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization of coastal cities and towns, deforestation, Overexploitation of marine and coastal resources,dumping of industrial and toxic wastes and coastal erosion due to man-made structures such as ports, harbors and water sports.
Shrinking of Beaches: One of the report of Asian Development Bank highlighted that about 1500 km (26%) facing severe erosion, leading to decrement in mainland coastline. Thus cities, town ,industries tourist spot are more prone to devastating natural disaster.
Lack of Responsiveness: The concern department do not feel sense of responsibility for protection. The rules and regulation not properly implemented. Centre and state govt not settle problem at priority basis. Insufficient is one the major concern.
Prone to natural Disaster: India having about 7500 coast line which prone to Tsunami, Earthquake and Cyclone. East coast of India faces Cyclones originated in Bay of Bengal. The tsunami originated in Indian ocean will has devastating impact on Indian coast. Like tsunami in 2004.
Benefits of Coastline
Employment: India’s 7500 coast line has huge potential in generating employment. Fisheries generate employment it also serve the purpose of food security. New notification norms promote infrastructure leading to local jobs.
Tourism:Indian beaches are hot spot destination fordomestic as well as foreign tourism.thus leading local employment and cultural exploration. Furtherit increase countries foreign exchange.
Transportation: India’s 80 to 90% goods export done by water transport mechanized port helpful in it. Coast line play strategic role while defending country. India can earn by renting port to other countries for commercial purpose and refueling good carrying ships.
Conclusion:New notification gives more say to state which design infra, early warning system according to their need.Coast line of any country can generate employment, tourism, strategic defence and water transport which is very cheap. Now the climate change is main problem for island and low laying countries. These country need mitigation and adaptation efforts and International commitment.