UPSC Syllabus : Corporate governance; National Company Law Appellate Tribunal
UPSC Syllabus : Indian Polity; the Anti Defection Law
The Anti-Defection Law provided a safeguard for defections made on genuine ideological differences. It accepted “split” within a party if at least one third of the members of the legislative party defect, and allowed the formation of a new party or “merger” with other political party if not less than two thirds of the party’s members commit to it. The 91st Constitutional Amendment introduced in 2003 deleted the provision allowing split.
3. A weak test (GS-3)
UPSC Syllabus : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health
UPSC Syllabus : Government Budgeting
The conflict is that if we tend to reduce the income tax rates and bring them, at least the highest rate, in alignment with the lower CIT (corporate income tax) rate, then there would be a revenue loss.At the same time, there would be some additional disposable income in the hands of middle-income groups, who may increase their consumption, which would be a benefit. So, lower capacity for the government to make direct increases in expenditure, but it has an indirect capacity, which it can put in the hands of the personal income tax assesses. So, we have to now evaluate this balance
5. Minimising the housing divide (GS-2)
UPSC Syllabus : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector
Provision of Urban Amenities in Rural Areas (PURA):
• This scheme aims to provide urban amenities and livelihood opportunities in rural areas to bridge the rural-urban divide, thereby reducing migration from rural to urban areas.
• The PURA Scheme (provision of Urban Amenities in Rural Areas) envisages rapid growth of rural India-given enhanced connectivity and infrastructure, the rural population would be empowered and enabled to create opportunities and livelihoods for themselves on a sustainable and growing basis.
• Due to the lack of livelihood opportunities, modern amenities, and services necessary for decent living in rural areas, there is a sense of deprivation and dissatisfaction amongst a large percentage of population and leads to migration of people to urban areas. This is primarily due to the big differences in the availability of physical and social infrastructure in rural and urban areas.
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